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Eve Derian-Smith Professor and Chair of the Department of Global Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She has written Bridging Divides: The Channel Tunnel and English Legal Identity…

Indian Casino

Indian Casino

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Indian Gaming Gaming enterprises in the United States owned by federally recognized Native American tribal governments and operated on reservations or other tribal lands. Indian gaming encompasses a wide variety of business operations, from full casino facilities with slot machines and Las Vegas-style high-stakes gambling to smaller facilities offering games such as bingo, lottery and video poker. Because US law recognizes some tribal sovereignty and self-governance, native-owned casinos enjoy some immunity from direct regulation by individual states. However, tribal gaming operations must comply with the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 and other federal laws.

The first Indian casino was built in Florida by the Seminole tribe, who opened a successful high-stakes bingo hall in 1979. Other tribal nations quickly followed suit, and by 2000, more than 150 tribes in 24 states had opened casino or bingo operations. reservation.

The early years of the 21st century saw rapid growth: by 2005, annual revenues exceeded $22 billion, and Indian sports accounted for about 25 percent of all legal gambling receipts in the United States. Although this was slightly less than the 40 percent share generated by commercial casinos in Nevada, Florida and New Jersey, it was about the same amount generated by state lotteries across the country. Notably—and unlike gaming operations run by non-Indians—tribal casinos are required by law to contribute a percentage of their annual revenue to state-controlled trust funds. These funds are then distributed to local communities to cover costs associated with ancillary outcomes of tribal game operations, such as expansion or maintenance of transportation, electrical or sewer systems, and other infrastructure; the need to increase traffic patrols; and treatment for gambling addiction. Some of these funds are distributed as grants to non-gambling tribes.

The prosperity of Indian gaming operations largely depends on location; People in suburbs or major urban areas can be very successful, while those in remote areas (where there are many reservations) earn very little. Although tribes with successful operations are able to use gaming revenues to improve the general health, education, and cultural well-being of their members, most Indian casinos do not generate significant profits. Thus, the success of some operations on some reservations cannot be generalized to all casinos or all reservations. In contrast, US Census data consistently show that the legalization of Indian sports has had no effect on Native populations: Native Americans are the poorest and most disadvantaged minority communities in the United States.

Alabama Indian Casinos Are On Federal Land, Interior Department Says

Indian sports have been at the center of political controversy since the late 1970s. Often the debate revolves around the morality or immorality of gambling; This issue is of course not unique to Indian sports. Controversies surrounding Indian gaming operations typically center on whether to retain or terminate the unique legal status of tribes that gives them the privilege of owning and operating such businesses; whether Indians have sufficient intelligence or training to undertake such business; Does engaging in entrepreneurial capitalism erode an inherently indigenous ethnic identity; and whether gaming is a desirable addition to a particular local economy.

(1831) In that decision, the Court defined tribes as “domestic sovereign nations,” meaning that their continued political viability was inherently dependent on the federal government. As a result of this decision, the priorities of policy issues related to the regulation of Native American economics, politics, religion, education—and indeed all aspects of Native life—were ultimately overseen by the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs and decided at the federal level. level judicial system.

Most importantly with respect to gaming, the US government delegated to state governments the ability to negotiate compacts (agreements) with tribes wishing to establish casinos, while retaining ultimate control over tribal affairs. These compacts allow states to take a percentage of casino revenue, which can be between 10 and 25 percent of gross profits. Unsurprisingly, the politics surrounding the negotiation of many of these agreements has intensified, with tribes arguing against states that consider their casino ventures a “free” source of revenue to offset state budget deficits.

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Although many federal court battles have been lost by tribal nations, Indian sports is one area where the courts have generally found in favor of tribes. Proponents of Indian casinos emphasize that gambling profits dependent on such legal decisions have allowed some indigenous communities to become economically independent for the first time since colonialism, leading to positive steps towards self-determination, community building and political empowerment. Conversely, opponents believe that the unique legal status of tribes is an unfair, unnecessary, or in some cases unwanted artifact of judicial history.

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Another controversial area relates to the professional skills of Indians. Critics allege that tribal governments are repeatedly defrauded by corrupt officials, employees, board members, consultants and others. According to those critics, this is largely because tribal members are dysfunctional or uneducated and tend to factionalize when faced with conflict. Such paternalistic arguments are sometimes bolstered by historical data showing that casinos, restaurants, and other cash-based businesses are more likely to engage in extortion or support organized crime. Those who believe tribal incivility is the reason for banning Indian sports cite the example of lobbyist Jack Abramoff and his colleagues, who noted that tribes were charged about $85 million to promote and protect Indian sports interests. needs

Adherents of Indian games acknowledge that many tribes have been cheated over the centuries, but argue that such losses are due to the actions of criminals and others rather than an original conspiracy. They point out that many people were exploited by the Abramoff ring and that it was so deeply entrenched in the federal government that it would not have been exposed without a major investigation. Indeed, officials in the House of Representatives, the Department of the Interior, and the White House later served prison terms for their roles in the Abramoff scandal, and Representative Tom Delay, the House Majority Leader (2003-05), resigned (but did not plead guilty). With such examples in mind, advocates of Indian gaming argue that, legally and ethically, indigenous nations should be treated no differently than state governments and private casino owners, and therefore should be allowed to profit from gambling (and risk capital). The 7th Street Casino in Kansas City, Kansas, is owned and operated by the Wyandot Nation and is one of five tribal casinos in the state.

Tribal casinos are getting attention. Gambling rates are lower among Native Americans than other populations.

A study by David Patterson Silver Wolf of the University of Washington found that the prevalence of gambling addiction in the Native American population is higher than in the general population. The estimated prevalence of problem-gambling among Native Americans is 2.3 percent, more than double the rate among all adults.

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Problem-Gambling Rate – Asian Americans 2.3%; Native Americans 2.3%; African-American 2.2%; White Americans 1.2%; Hispanic American 1% National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcoholism and Related Conditions

David Patterson Silver Wolf, a researcher at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, studies gambling addiction with Native American gamblers.

“Substance abuse disorders coexist with sports disorders. I was studying American Indian gaming and how those two things play together and how one can protect or influence the other,” said Silver Wolf, who is of Cherokee descent.

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Silver Wolf said Native Americans who aim to live traditional lives — such as going to festivals and abstaining from alcohol and drugs — have the least problems with gambling.

Fred Dakota, Native American Gambling Pioneer, Dies At 84

“The more traditional natives are healthier. You can talk about going back to learn your language, to learn your culture. All this is safe to do for health reasons,” Silver Wolf said.

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 paved the way for tribal gaming. Today, 28 states have tribal casinos that are organized on reservations. According to the American Gaming Association (AGA), one of the leading trade associations in the gaming industry, they generated more than $32 billion in revenue last year.

A portion of the gambling revenue is shared with the people in the tribes where the casino is located. Money also benefits

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